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UC Berkeley Press Release

Massive star burps, then explodes

– Tens of millions of years ago, in a galaxy far, far away, a massive star suffered a nasty double whammy.

Signs of the first shock reached Earth on Oct. 20, 2004, when the star was observed letting loose an outburst so enormous and bright that Japanese amateur astronomer Koichi Itagaki initially mistook it for a supernova. The star survived for nearly two years, however, until on Oct. 11, 2006, professional and amateur astronomers witnessed it blowing itself to smithereens as Supernova (SN) 2006jc.

Two years in the death
of a supergiant star

Drawings of the death of a star
(Credit: Aurore Simonnet/Sonoma State University, NASA Education & Public Outreach)

"We have never observed a stellar outburst and then later seen the star explode," said University of California, Berkeley, astronomer Ryan Foley. His group studied the 2006 event with ground-based telescopes, including the 10-meter (32.8-foot) W. M. Keck telescopes in Hawaii. Narrow helium spectral lines showed that the supernova's blast wave ran into a slow-moving shell of material, presumably the progenitor's outer layers that were ejected just two years earlier. If the spectral lines had been caused by the supernova's fast-moving blast wave, the lines would have been much broader.

Another group, led by Stefan Immler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., monitored SN 2006jc with NASA's Swift satellite and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. By observing how the supernova brightened in X-rays, a result of the blast wave slamming into the outburst ejecta, they could measure the amount of gas blown off in the 2004 outburst: about 0.01 solar mass, the equivalent of about 10 Jupiters.

"The beautiful aspect of our SN 2006jc observations is that although they were obtained in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the optical and in X-rays, they lead to the same conclusions," said Immler.

"This event was a complete surprise," added Alex Filippenko, leader of the UC Berkeley/Keck supernova group and a member of NASA's Swift satellite team. "It opens up a fascinating new window on how some kinds of stars die."

All the observations suggest that the supernova's blast wave took only a few weeks to reach the shell of material ejected two years earlier, which did not have time to drift very far from the star. As the wave smashed into the ejecta, it heated the gas to millions of degrees, hot enough to emit copious X-rays. The Swift satellite saw the supernova continue to brighten in X-rays for 100 days, something that has never been seen before in a supernova. All supernovae previously observed in X-rays have started off bright and then quickly faded to invisibility.

"You don't need a lot of mass in the ejecta to produce a lot of X-rays," noted Immler. Swift's ability to monitor the supernova's X-ray rise and decline over six months was crucial to the mass determination by Immler's team. But he added that Chandra's sharp resolution enabled his group to resolve the supernova from a bright X-ray source that appears in the field of view of Swift's X-ray telescope.

"We could not have made this measurement without Chandra," said Immler, who will submit his team's paper next week to the Astrophysical Journal. "The synergy between Swift's fast response and its ability to observe a supernova every day for a long period, and Chandra's high spatial resolution, is leading to a lot of interesting results."

Foley and his colleagues, whose paper appears in the March 10 Astrophysical Journal Letters, propose that the star recently transitioned from a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) star to a Wolf-Rayet star. An LBV is a massive star in a brief but unstable phase of stellar evolution. Similar to the 2004 eruption, LBVs are prone to blow off large amounts of mass in outbursts so extreme that they are frequently mistaken for supernovae, events dubbed "supernova impostors." Wolf-Rayet stars are hot, highly evolved stars that have shed their outer envelopes.

Supernova photo
A color image of SN2006jc (center) taken by the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory on Oct. 13, 2006. The smudge to the upper left of the supernova is the visible part of the galaxy in which it occurred, UGC 4904, located 77 million light years from Earth. (Mohan Ganeshalingam, Alex Filippenko & Weidong Li/UC Berkeley/KAIT/Lick Observatory)

Most astronomers did not expect that a massive star would explode so soon after a major outburst, or that a Wolf-Rayet star would produce such a luminous eruption, so SN 2006jc represents a puzzle for theorists.

"It challenges some aspects of our current model of stellar evolution," said Foley. "We really don't know what caused this star to have such a large eruption so soon before it went supernova."

"SN 2006jc provides us with an important clue that LBV-style eruptions may be related to the deaths of massive stars, perhaps more closely than we used to think," added coauthor and UC Berkeley astronomer Nathan Smith. "The fact that we have no well-established theory for what actually causes these outbursts is the elephant in the living room that nobody is talking about."

SN 2006jc occurred in galaxy UGC 4904, located 77 million light years from Earth in the constellation Lynx. The supernova explosion, a peculiar variant of a Type Ib, was first sighted by Itagaki, American amateur astronomer Tim Puckett and Italian amateur astronomer Roberto Gorelli.